Sering kita jumpai dari beberapa orang yang tanpa kita ketahui kapan mereka menikah tiba-tiba sudah menjadi suami istri, bahkan ada yang sampai mempunyai anak baru mengadakan walimah . Namun bukan berarti mereka tidak ingin mengadakan walimah, tetapi karena keterbatasan ekonomi yang mereka miliki sehingga walimah tidak begitu besar dan banyak orang yang tidak tahu.

   Kata walimah diambil dari kata ولم  yang artinya berkumpul, sedangkan yang dinamakan walimah adalah “menyediakan makanan karena adanya kebahagiaan yang baru seperti menjadi pengantin atau memiliki sesuatu yang baru” tetapi pemakaian kata walimah lebih banyak dalam kata Urs ( pengantin ).

Rasulullah pernah berkata kepada Abdurrahman bin Auf yang telah melaksanakan pernikahannya.

اولم ولو بشاة

   “Rayakanlah walaupun hanya dengan satu  kambing”  )Sahih Bukhari hlm. 2048.(

   Perintah Rasulullah dalam hadis tersebut bukanlah perintah wajib, melainkan perintah sunah menurut ijma’ ulama. Syekh Syihabuddin Abil-Abbas bin Ahmad bin Ahmad bin Hamzah Ar-Romli dalam kitabnya Fathur-Rahman mengatakan

والأمر فيه للندب, – الى أن قال – وهي لاتجب إجماعا            

   “Perintah dalam hadis ialah sunah  dan walimah tidak wajib menurut ijma’ ulama”. (Fathur-Rahman hal. 768.)

   Perintah Rasulullah SAW untuk mengadakan walimah dengan kambing ialah batas minimal bagi orang yang mempunyai ekonomi menengah keatas, tetapi bagi orang yang tidak mampu maka seadanya saja. Dalam kitab yang sama Syekh Syihabuddin Abil-Abbas bin Ahmad bin Ahmad bin Hamzah Ar-Romli menuturkan:

وقول الناظم : ( بشاة ) هو أقلها للمتمكن, أما غيره فأقلها مايقدر عليه.

   “Perkataan nadzim: ( Bisyatin ) ialah paling sedikit bagi yang mampu, apabila tidak mampu maka paling sedikit ialah sempunya”.

   Implikasi dari penjelasan diatas, yang menjadi tolok ukur sah atau tidaknya akad nikah ialah syarat dan rukunnya, apabila syarat dan rukun sudah terpenuhi maka menikah dengan mengadakan resepsi atau tidak tetap sah karena resepsi tidak masuk rukun atau sayarat sah dalam akad nikah, tetapi menikah tanpa resepsi hukumnya makruh. Karena perintah menikah dengan walimah sunah, sedangkan kebalikan sunah ialah makruh.

Syekh Ahmad bin Abdullatif  dalam kitabnya an-Nufhât hlm. 21

( قوله والمكروه ) – إلى أن قال – وهو ماكان ينهى غير مخصوص كالنهي عن ترك المندوبات المستفاد من أوامرها لأن الأمر بالشيء نهي عن ضده.

   “Makruh ialah sesuatu yang dilarang yang tidak ditentukan, seperti mencegah meninggalkan sesuatu sunnah  yang berfaidah dari segi perintahnya, karena sesungguhnya perintah dengan sesuatu, adalah larangan untuk tidak melakukannya.”( an-Nufhât hlm. 21)    Dari pemaparan tersebut sudah jelas, bahwa konsekuensi dari pada meninggalkan hal yang sunah ialah makruh, sehingga hukum menikah tanpa resepsi tetap sah tetapi makruh.

Yahya Farhani

Santri Aktif PP. Nurul Ulum Tagrinih Timur

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